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LETTER AND WRITING IN ANCIENT PEOPLES

Coats of arms of states, cities, communities, individuals, trademarks and emblems, advertising signs, religious symbols, scientific symbols – all this is a pictography that works on the principle: one image, one thought.

The increasingly complex life was constantly demanding new solutions, and symbolic images appear, as, for example, this can be seen in a petition from the Delaware Indian tribes to the United States Congress. The oldest of cave and rock paintings in our country is 15-20 thousand years.

Primitive art was a syncretic phenomenon. History knows the so-called unwritten civilizations, where a huge amount of necessary information was simply memorized by priests, lawyers, teachers, and “living letters” – messengers were sent over long distances.

Travelers talked about the aboriginal tribes of distant countries, in which the elders led the young men into the jungle or the desert about once a year, and there they passed from mouth to mouth the whole experience of the tribe, which should be learned (“male secret”). The Indians of South America, this thing was called quipu (kipu) – nodular writing. These are the beginnings of art, but also the beginnings of writing; here man first expressed his thought in the image. Pictography filled the life of a modern person, partially taking upon itself the transfer of semantic information by means of pictorial symbols. It is gradually being transformed into an ideographic letter, in which each sign either expressed individual concepts and ideas, or could develop, clarify the meaning of other signs. This pictography is a picturesque letter. The wide strip below is the father of the Mississippi Rivers, a common Indian territory. Aeda and Rhapsody – ancient singers, storytellers – sang them by heart at folk festivals. The immortal poems “Iliad” and “Odyssey” were first recorded in Athens on scrolls around 510 BC. The legendary blind man Homer embodied in them the entire spiritual and material world of ancient man, including, for example, the tactics of the military system of the archaic era and the technology of manufacturing bronze weapons. The figures of animals (beaver, goose, fish, hare and others) express the totems of the tribes united by the union. As the horizons of the ancient man expanded and his activities became more complicated, other helpers appeared in memory: various kinds of nicks, notes, nodules, and finally, drawings.

Scientists find in caves and on rocks images made by the hand of a primitive man, reflecting his impressions of the world, life, nature. The idea is extremely clearly and clearly expressed in this pictorial solution, but often such images resemble rebuses, which are sometimes very difficult to solve. This has been true for hundreds of centuries.

If you look through the history of world literature, it turns out that all peoples somehow went through the period of the “oral book” before they began to record information on any material. It was difficult to memorize thousands of lines, and primitive storytellers used ribbons or knots that helped them. In ancient times, human memory was the only means of preserving and transmitting public experience, information about events and people. Prior to this, for centuries, poems were distributed orally. Over time, a syllabic letter was established in Babylonian, Assyrian, Hittite and other languages, where signs prevailed that convey not a word, but a syllable. With its help it was possible to convey not only the meaning, but also the shades of human thought. True, the experience of that time was still primitive, and primitive educators accompanied him with rhythmic dances and singing for speedy memorization. Languages ​​of many ancient peoples (Sumerians, Egyptians, Chinese, Indians, Mayans) passed the stage of pictorial-semantic combinations before they found writing, and with it a book.

At the same time, language was formed as a logical system, a linguistic system – division into words, phrases, syllables, individual sounds, parts of speech, the grammar as a whole. e. Along the way, the problem of writing material, the form of the book, which, of course, is equally dependent on both the letter used and the use of writing material, was solved.

With the emergence of a slave system with its relatively developed political hierarchy, land cultivation techniques, and handicraft production, pictographic recording no longer met the needs of culture. In him, the awakening need for beauty merged with a naive belief in the supernatural and with the desire to consolidate, preserve memories of what was happening. The king ordered to carve it with the hands of the vanquished, so that passing caravans would spread the news of his victory all over the world.

Nowadays, when you are in a hurry, you suddenly notice a sign: in a circle is a figure of a running man crossed obliquely. And it’s clear to you without words: there is no passage. It captures the victory of Darius I Gistaspa over the rebels (521 BC). In Iran, on the rock of Begistun, over the caravan paths, a whole picture is sculpted: the Persian king in the crown, the god Ormuzd spread his wings over him, a string of prisoners with a rope around his neck stretches.

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