Historically, the content of the term (its concept, meaning) is the same in European and Central Asian languages. The Greek “biblio”, the Latin “liber”, the Semitic “sefer”, the Arabic “kitab”, like the Slavic-Baltic “book”, are interpreted in the same way: 1) subject, 2) work, 3) part of the composition. Once appearing, no matter how long it may be, this term retains its root inviolability to this day.
In Russian writing, the word “books” is first encountered in the Ostromir Gospel (1056/1057), the earliest dated manuscript monument of the Ostromir Gospel. L. 3 vol., And is used in the plural, which allows him to give an expansive interpretation – knowledge in general rather than just a book. The use of the word “book” in the singular was recorded with us much later, in 1263, at one of the monastery scribes Brandt R. F. Lectures on Slavic-Russian paleography. M., 1909.P. 15 ..
However, there is an opinion about the non-Slavic, even generally non-European origin of the word “book”. The term was derived from the ancient Chinese, Ugro-Finnish, Assyrian, Turkic languages, without any difficulty in evidenceGovorov A.A. On the Old Russian Origin of the Word “Book” // Bukinistic Trade and the History of the Book. Vol. 1.M., 1990.S. 14 ..
It seems to us that no later than 863 (the time of the famous journey of St. Cyril to Korsun, after which he took up the invention of the alphabet), the languages of the Slavs and the Baltic states already had the most ancient, stable and well-defined term “book”. What is surprising here is that our distant ancestors did not use the vocabulary of the closest cultural peoples for this purpose, which, of course, they knew: “biblio”, “liber”, “manuscript”, “charter”, “letter”, but preferred word formation from the pro-Slavic kneti, that is, to know. However, the above terms were actively used and are used as synonyms.
Scientists convincingly prove the kinship of the Russian word “book” with concepts meaning knowledge in general. Allocation of it to an independent semasiology series occurred, obviously, in the primitive era, when the Proto-Slavs migrated to the East European plain.
One of the strong proofs of the originality of the mentioned series is that in the course of development it formed derivatives, and not just adjectives and epithets. In the Slavic languages, the terms “prince” (Russian), “priests” (Polish), “knesos” (Bulgarian), and others related to tribal leaders, priesthood, and somehow or other related to seismology of knowledge (“chetechu and gaateu … “). Thus, etymologically, the “book” is formed from the verb “know”.
For an ancient person, an oral poem like the Iliad or the Mahabharata alone could be a full-fledged source of information about the whole universe, replacing all the books, newspapers, paintings, radio and television programs of our time. At best, he expanded his arsenal with cave paintings or cave paintings. Such is the syncretism of primitive culture. The book has come a long historical way – from underdevelopment, primitive unity to the modern sophistication of high-tech means of transmitting information.
History studies how the constituent processes interact in a certain, centuries-old sequence: science, literature, art – forms of creativity, how they are embodied in the book, how the physical, technical and chemical-technological methods of making a book arise and are transformed, how such specific actions, such as, for example, illustration, binding, bibliographic description, advertising, finally, consumption, collection, storage, etc. As a result, we see through the thickness of centuries the image of a book, this truly wonderful person’s achievement.